Wednesday, October 30, 2013

[Info] Interface to the Routing System (I2RS)

IETF is trying to build its SDN standard by forming a group called Interface to the Routing System (I2RS) .
They are going to define SDN based on networking vendor side and could effect SDN market sooner or later. 

The Drafts:



Tuesday, October 29, 2013

[Trema] A good example with Trema to build OpenFlow Controller ( use case )

Previously I just wondered how to use Trema to build a useful and piratical solution with a good architecture for users to leverage its functionality. Well, it does exist. The following URL is a good example of a good use case containing a good architecture.
http://www.slideshare.net/chibayasunobu/developing-production-open-flow-controller-with-trema-201304160

Source Code:
https://github.com/trema/virtual-network-platform


Design:


Implementation:

Friday, October 25, 2013

[Network] EtherTypes Reference

802 EtherTypes Reference:

0x0000
-
0x05DC
IEEE 802.3 length.
0x0600XEROX NS IDP.
0x0660
0x0661
DLOG.
0x0800IP, Internet Protocol.
0x0801X.75 Internet.
0x0802NBS Internet.
0x0803ECMA Internet.
0x0804Chaosnet.
0x0805X.25 Level 3.
0x0806ARP, Address Resolution Protocol.
0x0807XNS compatability.
0x0808Frame Relay ARP.
0x8035DRARP, Dynamic RARP.
RARP, Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.
0x80F3AARP, AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol.
0x8100EAPS, Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching.
0x8137IPX, Internet Packet Exchange.
0x814CSNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol.
0x86DDIPv6, Internet Protocol version 6.
0x8808MPCP, Multi-Point Control Protocol.
0x880BPPP, Point-to-Point Protocol.
0x880CGSMP, General Switch Management Protocol.
0x8847MPLS, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (unicast).
0x8848MPLS, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (multicast).
0x8863PPPoE, PPP Over Ethernet (Discovery Stage).
0x8864PPPoE, PPP Over Ethernet (PPP Session Stage).
0x886FNetwork Load Balancing.
0x888EEAPOL, EAP over LAN.
0x88A2AoE, ATA over Ethernet.
0x88A4EtherCAT.
0x88CATIPC, Transparent Inter Process Communication Protocol.
0x88BBLWAPP, Light Weight Access Point Protocol.
0x88CCLLDP, Link Layer Discovery Protocol.
0x88DCWSMP, WAVE S

Monday, October 21, 2013

[Static Analysis] Tools for static analysis ( C/C++ )

Here are the list of some software tools for static analysis ( C/C++ ). FYI.
  • Klocwork Insight ( Commercial )
  • Cppcheck
  • LintProject Pro
  • scan-build

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

[dbus] The notes for DBus APIs

The previous post: [dbus] The useful information and example of D-Bus has introduced the concept and an example. This post is focused on its API.

DBusConnection:
http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/api/html/group__DBusConnection.html#details
The keypoint that is worth mentioning is about dealing with asynchronous message. 
The function dbus_connection_read_write_dispatch() for example does all three of these things, offering a simple alternative to a main loop. If you don't need to be asynchronous, you can ignore DBusWatchDBusTimeout, and dbus_connection_dispatch(). Instead, dbus_connection_read_write_dispatch() can be used.

Here is an example of how to use dbus watch and dbus timeout:
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9378593/dbuswatch-and-dbustimeout-examples
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

#include <dbus/dbus.h>

struct dbus_ctx {
    DBusConnection *conn;
    struct event_base *evbase;
    struct event dispatch_ev;
    void *extra;
};

static void dispatch(int fd, short ev, void *x)
{
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = x;
    DBusConnection *c = ctx->conn;

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "dispatching\n");

    while (dbus_connection_get_dispatch_status(c) == DBUS_DISPATCH_DATA_REMAINS)
        dbus_connection_dispatch(c);
}

static void handle_dispatch_status(DBusConnection *c,
                                   DBusDispatchStatus status, void *data)
{
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = data;

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "new dbus dispatch status: %d\n", status);

    if (status == DBUS_DISPATCH_DATA_REMAINS) {
        struct timeval tv = {
            .tv_sec = 0,
            .tv_usec = 0,
        };
        event_add(&ctx->dispatch_ev, &tv);
    }
}

static void handle_watch(int fd, short events, void *x)
{
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = x;
    struct DBusWatch *watch = ctx->extra;

    unsigned int flags = 0;
    if (events & EV_READ)
        flags |= DBUS_WATCH_READABLE;
    if (events & EV_WRITE)
        flags |= DBUS_WATCH_WRITABLE;
    /*if (events & HUP)
        flags |= DBUS_WATCH_HANGUP;
    if (events & ERR)
        flags |= DBUS_WATCH_ERROR;*/

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "got dbus watch event fd=%d watch=%p ev=%d\n",
           fd, watch, events);
    if (dbus_watch_handle(watch, flags) == FALSE)
        logger(LOG_ERROR "dbus_watch_handle() failed\n");

    handle_dispatch_status(ctx->conn, DBUS_DISPATCH_DATA_REMAINS, ctx);
}

static dbus_bool_t add_watch(DBusWatch *w, void *data)
{
    if (!dbus_watch_get_enabled(w))
        return TRUE;

    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = data;
    ctx->extra = w;

    int fd = dbus_watch_get_unix_fd(w);
    unsigned int flags = dbus_watch_get_flags(w);
    short cond = EV_PERSIST;
    if (flags & DBUS_WATCH_READABLE)
        cond |= EV_READ;
    if (flags & DBUS_WATCH_WRITABLE)
        cond |= EV_WRITE;

    struct event *event = event_new(ctx->evbase, fd, cond, handle_watch, ctx);
    if (!event)
        return FALSE;

    event_add(event, NULL);

    dbus_watch_set_data(w, event, NULL);

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "added dbus watch fd=%d watch=%p cond=%d\n", fd, w, cond);
    return TRUE;
}

static void remove_watch(DBusWatch *w, void *data)
{
    struct event *event = dbus_watch_get_data(w);

    if (event)
        event_free(event);

    dbus_watch_set_data(w, NULL, NULL);

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "removed dbus watch watch=%p\n", w);
}

static void toggle_watch(DBusWatch *w, void *data)
{
    logger(LOG_DEBUG "toggling dbus watch watch=%p\n", w);

    if (dbus_watch_get_enabled(w))
        add_watch(w, data);
    else
        remove_watch(w, data);
}

static void handle_timeout(int fd, short ev, void *x)
{
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = x;
    DBusTimeout *t = ctx->extra;

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "got dbus handle timeout event %p\n", t);

    dbus_timeout_handle(t);
}

static dbus_bool_t add_timeout(DBusTimeout *t, void *data)
{
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = data;

    if (!dbus_timeout_get_enabled(t))
        return TRUE;

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "adding timeout %p\n", t);

    struct event *event = event_new(ctx->evbase, -1, EV_TIMEOUT|EV_PERSIST,
                                    handle_timeout, t);
    if (!event) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "failed to allocate new event for timeout\n");
        return FALSE;
    }

    int ms = dbus_timeout_get_interval(t);
    struct timeval tv = {
        .tv_sec = ms / 1000,
        .tv_usec = (ms % 1000) * 1000,
    };
    event_add(event, &tv);

    dbus_timeout_set_data(t, event, NULL);

    return TRUE;
}

static void remove_timeout(DBusTimeout *t, void *data)
{
    struct event *event = dbus_timeout_get_data(t);

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "removing timeout %p\n", t);

    event_free(event);

    dbus_timeout_set_data(t, NULL, NULL);
}

static void toggle_timeout(DBusTimeout *t, void *data)
{
    logger(LOG_DEBUG "toggling timeout %p\n", t);

    if (dbus_timeout_get_enabled(t))
        add_timeout(t, data);
    else
        remove_timeout(t, data);
}

static DBusHandlerResult handle_nameownerchanged(DBusMessage *message,
                                                 void *data)
{
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = data;
    char *name, *old, *new;
    if (dbus_message_get_args(message, NULL,
                              DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &name,
                              DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &old,
                              DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &new,
                              DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) == FALSE) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "spurious NameOwnerChanged signal\n");
        return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_NOT_YET_HANDLED;
    }
    logger(LOG_DEBUG "dbus NameOwnerChanged %s -> %s\n", old, new);

    if (new[0] != '\0')
        return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_NOT_YET_HANDLED;

    /* XXX handle disconnecting clients */

    return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_NOT_YET_HANDLED;
}

static DBusHandlerResult msg_filter(DBusConnection *connection,
                                    DBusMessage *message, void *data)
{
    if (dbus_message_is_signal(message, DBUS_INTERFACE_DBUS,
                               "NameOwnerChanged"))
        return handle_nameownerchanged(message, data);

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "got dbus message %d %s -> %s %s/%s/%s %s\n",
           dbus_message_get_type(message),
           dbus_message_get_sender(message),
           dbus_message_get_destination(message),
           dbus_message_get_path(message),
           dbus_message_get_interface(message),
           dbus_message_get_member(message),
           dbus_message_get_type(message) == DBUS_MESSAGE_TYPE_ERROR ?
           dbus_message_get_error_name(message) : "");

    return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_NOT_YET_HANDLED;
}

static void unregister_func(DBusConnection *connection, void *data)
{
}

static DBusHandlerResult message_func(DBusConnection *connection,
                                      DBusMessage *message, void *data)
{
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = data;

    logger(LOG_DEBUG "got dbus message sent to %s %s %s\n",
           dbus_message_get_destination(message),
           dbus_message_get_interface(message),
           dbus_message_get_path(message));

    /* XXX handle DBus message */

    return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_HANDLED;
}

static DBusObjectPathVTable dbus_vtable = {
    .unregister_function = unregister_func,
    .message_function = message_func,
};

struct dbus_ctx *dbus_init(struct event_base *eb)
{
    DBusConnection *conn = NULL;
    struct dbus_ctx *ctx = calloc(1, sizeof(struct dbus_ctx));
    if (!ctx) {
        logger_perror("can't allocate dbus_ctx\n");
        goto out;
    }

    conn = dbus_bus_get_private(DBUS_BUS_SESSION, NULL);
    if (conn == NULL) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "failed to get bus\n");
        goto out;
    }

    dbus_connection_set_exit_on_disconnect(conn, FALSE);

    ctx->conn = conn;
    ctx->evbase = eb;
    event_assign(&ctx->dispatch_ev, eb, -1, EV_TIMEOUT, dispatch, ctx);

    if (!dbus_connection_set_watch_functions(conn, add_watch, remove_watch,
                                             toggle_watch, ctx, NULL)) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "dbus_connection_set_watch_functions() failed\n");
        goto out;
    }

    if (!dbus_connection_set_timeout_functions(conn, add_timeout,
                                               remove_timeout, toggle_timeout,
                                               ctx, NULL)) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "dbus_connection_set_timeout_functions() failed\n");
        goto out;
    }

    if (dbus_connection_add_filter(conn, msg_filter, ctx, NULL) == FALSE) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "dbus_connection_add_filter() failed\n");
        goto out;
    }

    dbus_connection_set_dispatch_status_function(conn, handle_dispatch_status,
                                                 ctx, NULL);

    char match[256];
    snprintf(match,
             sizeof(match),
             "type='signal',interface='%s',member='NameOwnerChanged'",
             DBUS_INTERFACE_DBUS);
    DBusError error;
    dbus_error_init(&error);
    dbus_bus_add_match(conn, match, &error);
    if (dbus_error_is_set(&error)) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "dbus_bus_add_match() %s failed: %s\n",
               "NameOwnerChanged", error.message);
        dbus_error_free(&error);
        goto out;
    }

    snprintf(match,
             sizeof(match),
             "type='signal',interface='%s',member='%s'",
             GNP_IPC_INTERFACE, GNP_IPC_SIGNAL_DELIVER_SA);
    dbus_error_init(&error);
    dbus_bus_add_match(conn, match, &error);
    if (dbus_error_is_set(&error)) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "dbus_bus_add_match() %s failed: %s\n",
               GNP_IPC_SIGNAL_DELIVER_SA, error.message);
        dbus_error_free(&error);
        goto out;
    }

    if (dbus_connection_register_object_path(conn, GNP_IPC_PATH, &dbus_vtable,
                                             ctx) != TRUE) {
        logger(LOG_ERROR "failed to register object path\n");
        goto out;
    }

    return ctx;

out:
    if (conn) {
        dbus_connection_close(conn);
        dbus_connection_unref(conn);
    }
    if (ctx)
        free(ctx);
    return NULL;
}

void dbus_close(struct dbus_ctx *ctx)
{
    if (ctx && ctx->conn) {
        dbus_connection_flush(ctx->conn);
        dbus_connection_close(ctx->conn);
        dbus_connection_unref(ctx->conn);
        event_del(&ctx->dispatch_ev);
    }
    if (ctx)
        free(ctx);
}

DBusMessage:
http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/api/html/group__DBusMessage.html
This module is to deal with messages.

DBus Message Bus API:
http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/api/html/group__DBusBus.html
This module is the only one in libdbus that's specific to communicating with the message bus daemon. The rest of the API can also be used for connecting to another application directly.

DBusPendingCall API:
http://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/api/html/group__DBusPendingCall.html


An example to look over names on the message (bus driver) by using proxy object:
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/14263390/how-to-compile-a-basic-d-bus-glib-example
#include <stdlib.h>          // for exit()   
#include <dbus/dbus.h>       // for dbus_*   
#include <dbus/dbus-glib.h>  // for dbus_g_*

int
main (int argc, char **argv)
{
  DBusGConnection *connection;
  GError *error;
  DBusGProxy *proxy;
  char **name_list;
  char **name_list_ptr;

  g_type_init ();

  error = NULL;
  connection = dbus_g_bus_get (DBUS_BUS_SESSION,
                           &error);
  if (connection == NULL)
    {
      g_printerr ("Failed to open connection to bus: %s\n",
              error->message);
      g_error_free (error);
      exit (1);
    }

  /* Create a proxy object for the "bus driver" (name "org.freedesktop.DBus") */

  proxy = dbus_g_proxy_new_for_name (connection,
                                 DBUS_SERVICE_DBUS,
                                 DBUS_PATH_DBUS,
                                 DBUS_INTERFACE_DBUS);

  /* Call ListNames method, wait for reply */
  error = NULL;
  if (!dbus_g_proxy_call (proxy, "ListNames", &error, G_TYPE_INVALID,
                      G_TYPE_STRV, &name_list, G_TYPE_INVALID))
    {
      /* Just do demonstrate remote exceptions versus regular GError */
      if (error->domain == DBUS_GERROR && error->code == DBUS_GERROR_REMOTE_EXCEPTION)
    g_printerr ("Caught remote method exception %s: %s",
            dbus_g_error_get_name (error),
            error->message);
      else
    g_printerr ("Error: %s\n", error->message);
      g_error_free (error);
      exit (1);
    }

  /* Print the results */

  g_print ("Names on the message bus:\n");

  for (name_list_ptr = name_list; *name_list_ptr; name_list_ptr++)
    {
      g_print ("  %s\n", *name_list_ptr);
    }
  g_strfreev (name_list);

  g_object_unref (proxy);

  return 0;
}

The example of dbus_connection_add_filter() and handler method:
http://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/dbus/2003-September/000468.html